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Vaccination for HPV and Hepatitis A

Vaccinations for HPV and Hepatitis A/B

Introduction:-

Vaccination is the term used for administration of a vaccine in a person to develop or boost immunity against a pathogen. Vaccination is crucial for protection against a lot of diseases and can be done at various stages of life depending upon the disease it is for.

Vaccination for Hepatitis A/B:-

Hepatitis A and B are caused by a viral infection. The other types of Hepatitis are Hepatitis C, D and E. The type of virus causing each kind of hepatitis is different from other and is transmitted also differently.

Hepatitis A:-

Hepatitis A causes inflammation of the liver. The virus is present in the human excretion and can be spread by personal contact. It is commonly seen in unhygienic conditions and can be spread by consuming water or food which is contaminated by HAV. The symptoms might be similar to mild flu, severe pain in abdomen, jaundice etc.

Hepatitis B:-

The symptoms in this case also spread like Hepatitis A, with mild flu like symptoms. Sometimes in infants, it might cause lifelong liver problems. It is spread when the bodily fluids like blood, saliva of an infected person come in contact with a healthy individual. Also sharing personal items like toothbrush, needles, syringes may cause this.

Vaccine for HAV and HBV:-

The vaccine for both HAV and HBV are highly effective. Studies have shown that the vaccine might provide immunity for possibly 20-30 years and maybe even a lifetime. There are hardly any side effects of the vaccine and the most common symptom is mild soreness at the injection point.

HAV vaccine:-

Children between the age group of 1 – 2 years should be vaccinated. Also, children older than a year of age and those who are likely to travel to area of high risk should also get the vaccine. Although, there are rarely any side effects, severe allergic reaction might happen in very few cases within few hours of vaccination.

HBV Vaccine:-

All newborns should be vaccinated in time for HBV. Children and teenagers under 19 years of age should be vaccinated. Also, it is important in people who have multiple sexual partners, or are in close contact with a HBV infected patient should also get vaccinated.

Dosage of the vaccine:-

For ensuring complete protection two doses of vaccine for HAV should be taken at a gap of six months. People who are travelling should get vaccinated a month prior to their scheduled travel.

For HBV, the vaccination is completed in four doses. The newborns are vaccinated at birth.

There are no known side effects of the vaccine; however, due to some inactive components in the vaccine, an allergy might get triggered in some individuals. It is advisable to speak to the doctor in case of any medical history of allergies.

Vaccination for HPV:-

HPV is the abbreviation of Human Papilloma Virus, which is the name of a family of virus, affecting skin and the moist areas of the body. Parts of the body which can get affected by HPV are the anus, mouth, cervix, vagina etc. There are forty types of HPV known to cause infection in male and female genital area.

It is a very commonly prevailing contagious disease. Almost all men and women, who are sexually active, have HPV but generally there are no visible symptoms. Therefore, infected people can pass on the infection on to their partners. The symptoms are generally discarded by the body itself but in some cases they might be persistent.  HPV can be high or low risk. The low risk may cause warts, but the high risk HPV may cause cancer also.

Young boys and girls aged 11 -12 years should get vaccinated and complete the course of all the three doses.  Men and women, if not vaccinated at younger age, can get vaccinated later also.  Also, people with HIV, should get vaccinated. The vaccine is more effective when given to preteens. It is also advised to vaccinate young children before they begin to be sexually active. The vaccine is extremely effective and a decrease in cases of genital warts has been observed in the sexually active teens over the years.

In boys, HPV vaccine reduces the risk of cancer of throat, penis and anus along with eliminating the risk of genital warts. It also safeguards their sexual partners. The vaccine is highly effective and the potency remains constant throughout. Also, there is no evidence which proves that the vaccine loses its efficiency over a period of time.  The vaccine does not need a following booster shot. The three doses of the vaccine should be mandatorily taken over a period of six months. If someone does not complete the schedule of doses, there is no need to start from the very first dose. Even after a gap of few months, the next schedule can be followed and the course for the vaccine may be completed.