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Pregnancy

Pregnancy
Parenthood is considered to be one of the challenging as well as rewarding phases of one’s life. The first stroke of excitement is experienced by the parents when the news of the pregnancy is confirmed. Thereafter, begins the most wonderful journey of a woman that she will ever experience.
Normally, when a woman is expecting, her body goes through a lot of changes. There are huge physical changes in the body accompanied by mood swings which result from hormonal fluctuation which take place during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman might find herself to be more emotional than she normally is. The emotional roller coaster ride is fuelled by the jumping hormones. Almost every woman who has had children goes through the challenge of facing her own unexplained mood swings.
A medically normal pregnancy goes relatively smoothly with minor symptoms only like morning sickness in the first trimester, nausea, dizziness etc.
But there are other aspects of pregnancy that should be looked into by parents-to-be or people who are trying to conceive. They are:-
Abortion
During pregnancy every mother should be very careful and keep an open eye for anything that seems abnormal. Abortion is the term that is used for termination of pregnancy. In case a woman does not wish to have a child she can opt for voluntary abortion. Generally, abortion is a relatively simple and safe procedure when carried out by a medical practitioner in the first trimester. Generally it is done when there is some abnormality in the fetus, or there is threat to mother’s life in case there are multiple fetuses in the uterus or abortion is also done when the mother does not want to continue for personal reasons.
If the pregnancy is terminated on its own, it is called a miscarriage. Miscarriage can happen due to imbalance in hormonal level, infection in uterus, excessive smoking and drinking, infection in the uterus etc.
Do’s and Don’ts of conception
Every couple who wants to have a child should go through a checklist of do’s and don’ts before making an effort to start a family. For some people, conception does not take long, but for others it may take months or years of trying. But in either case, a couple should primarily visit a doctor for consultation about any medical issues or clearing up doubts. The woman should maintain a healthy lifestyle, should quit drinking and smoking, exercise and start taking pre-natal vitamins. Also, in order to conceive timely, a woman should limit the intake of caffeine, take medicines only on being prescribed by doctor, and try to keep stress at bay.
Fertility and IVF
For a couple to conceive, both the man and the woman should be in good reproductive health. For a man to be fertile, there are several factors which are important. First of all, all the internal and external male reproductive organs should form completely during puberty. Also the sperm quality and motility which is regulated by the production of hormones should be normal for conception. Any kind of abnormality in the sperm can prove to be barrier in successful conception.  Other reasons could be genetic, medical conditions like varicocele, enlarged prostate, chlamydia, gonorrhea etc. exposure to radiation, chemicals, mercury, lead etc. can also cause infertility. Mostly, there are no external symptoms of underlying problem of infertility.
Female infertility
Infertility in females could be due to ovaries which may not be producing the egg or releasing egg to the fallopian tubes. Or there may be problems in the fertilized egg in attaching itself to the uterus lining. The most common reason for infertility in females is due to fluctuation in ovulation cycle. Stress and body weight fluctuation could also impact fertility. PCOS or polycystic ovarian syndrome may also have severe impact on the ovaries and hence the fertility. Also excessive release of prolactin by pituitary gland also has an impact on fertility.
The cause of infertility in a woman could be a either a single one or a combination of many factors together.