For a couple to conceive, both the man and the woman should be in good reproductive health. For a man to be fertile, there are several factors which are important. First of all, all the internal and external male reproductive organs should form completely during puberty. Also the sperm quality and motility which is regulated by the production of hormones should be normal for conception. Any kind of abnormality in the sperm can prove to be barrier in successful conception. Other reasons could be genetic, medical conditions like varicocele, enlarged prostate, chlamydia, gonorrhea etc. exposure to radiation, chemicals, mercury, lead etc. can also cause infertility. Mostly, there are no external symptoms of underlying problem of infertility.
Infertility in females could be due to ovaries which may not be producing the egg or releasing egg to the fallopian tubes. Or there may be problems in the fertilized egg in attaching itself to the uterus lining. The most common reason for infertility in females is due to fluctuation in ovulation cycle. Stress and body weight fluctuation could also impact fertility. PCOS or polycystic ovarian syndrome may also have severe impact on the ovaries and hence the fertility. Also excessive release of prolactin by pituitary gland also has an impact on fertility.
The cause of infertility in a woman could be a either a single one or a combination of many factors together.
In vitro fertilization is the process in which the process of fertilization of egg and sperm is carried out in the laboratory and the fertilized egg is placed inside the uterus. The fertilized egg is placed inside the uterus of woman through a tube known as catheter. IVF is recommended in cases where all other options of conception have failed.
Intrauterine insemination is technique in which the sperm is placed directly in to the uterus of the woman to enable conception. It is simpler than IVF. The male partner is required to provide semen, which is then cleaned to obtain normal and active sperm. In this procedure it is important to place the semen when the eggs are released; therefore the ovulation cycle is closely monitored.